br Funding br References br Venook AP Niedzwiecki
 Venook AP, Niedzwiecki D, Lenz HJ, Innocenti F, Fruth B, Meyerhardt JA, Schrag D, Greene C, O'Neil BH, and Atkins JN, et al (2017). Effect of first-line chemotherapy combined with cetuximab or bevacizumab on overall survival in patients with KRAS wild-type advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 317, 2392–2401.
 Bosch LJ, Luo Y, Lao VV, Snaebjornsson P, Trooskens G, Vlassenbroeck I, Mongera S, Tang W, Welcsh P, and Herman JG, et al (2016). WRN promoter CpG island hypermethylation does not predict more favorable outcomes for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with irinotecan-based therapy.
 Bosch LJW, Trooskens G, Snaebjornsson P, Coupe VMH, Mongera S, Haan JC, Richman SD, Koopman M, Tol J, and de Meyer T, et al (2017). Decoy receptor 1 (DCR1) promoter hypermethylation and response to irinotecan in metastatic colorectal cancer. Oncotarget 8, 63140–63154.
 Ogino S, Nosho K, Kirkner GJ, Kawasaki T, Meyerhardt JA, Loda M, Giovannucci EL, and Fuchs CS (2009). CpG island methylator phenotype, microsatellite instability, BRAF o-Phenanthroline and clinical outcome in colon cancer. Gut 58, 90–96.
 Demurtas L, Puzzoni M, Giampieri R, Ziranu P, Pusceddu V, Mandolesi A, Cremolini C, Masi G, Gelsomino F, and Antoniotti C, et al (2017). The role of primary tumour sidedness, EGFR gene copy number and EGFR promoter methylation in RAS/BRAF wild-type colorectal cancer patients receiving irinotecan/cetuximab. Br J Cancer 117, 315–321.
 Morano F, Corallo S, Niger M, Barault L, Milione M, Berenato R, Moretto R, Randon G, Antista M, and Belfiore A, et al (2018). Temozolomide and irinotecan (TEMIRI regimen) as salvage treatment of irinotecan-sensitive advanced colorectal cancer patients bearing MGMT methylation. Ann Oncol 29, 1800–1806.
 Moutinho C, Martinez-Cardus A, Santos C, Navarro-Perez V, Martinez-Balibrea E, Musulen E, Carmona FJ, Sartore-Bianchi A, Cassingena A, and Siena S, et al (2014). Epigenetic inactivation of the BRCA1 interactor SRBC and resistance to oxaliplatin in colorectal cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 106djt322.  Ogino S, Meyerhardt JA, Kawasaki T, Clark JW, Ryan DP, Kulke MH, Enzinger PC, Wolpin BM, Loda M, and Fuchs CS (2007). CpG island methylation, response to combination chemotherapy, and patient survival in advanced microsatellite stable colorectal carcinoma. Virchows Arch 450, 529–537.  Agrelo R, Cheng WH, Setien F, Ropero S, Espada J, Fraga MF, Herranz M, Paz MF, Sanchez-Cespedes M, and Artiga MJ, et al (2006). Epigenetic inactivation of the premature aging Werner syndrome gene in human cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103, 8822–8827.
 Zhang X, Shimodaira H, Soeda H, Komine K, Takahashi H, Ouchi K, Inoue M, Takahashi M, Takahashi S, and Ishioka C (2016). CpG island methylator phenotype is associated with the efficacy of sequential oxaliplatin- and irinotecan-based chemotherapy and EGFR-related gene mutation in Japanese patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Int J Clin Oncol 21, 1091–1101.  Heyn H and Esteller M (2012). DNA methylation profiling in the clinic: applications and challenges. Nat Rev Genet 13, 679–692.
 Bae JM, Kim JH, and Kang GH (2016). Molecular subtypes of colorectal cancer and their clinicopathologic features, with an emphasis on the serrated neoplasia pathway. Arch Pathol Lab Med 140, 406–412.
 Cleven AH, Derks S, Draht MX, Smits KM, Melotte V, Van Neste L, Tournier B, Jooste V, Chapusot C, and Weijenberg MP, et al (2014). CHFR promoter methylation indicates poor prognosis in stage II microsatellite stable colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res 20, 3261–3271.
Neoplasia Vol. 21, No. 1, 2019 CHFR Promoter Methylation in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Cha et al. 155
methylation with disease recurrence in locally advanced colon cancer. Clin Cancer Res 17, 4531–4540.
 Pelosof L, Yerram SR, Ahuja N, Delmas A, Danilova L, Herman JG, and Azad NS (2014). CHFR silencing or microsatellite instability is associated with increased antitumor activity of docetaxel or gemcitabine in colorectal cancer. Int J Cancer 134, 596–605.
 Liu C, Wu J, Paudyal SC, You Z, and Yu X (2013). CHFR is important for the first wave of ubiquitination at DNA damage sites. Nucleic Acids Res 41, 1698–1710.  Kawasaki T, Ohnishi M, Suemoto Y, Kirkner GJ, Liu Z, Yamamoto H, Loda M, Fuchs CS, and Ogino S (2007). WRN promoter methylation possibly connects mucinous differentiation, microsatellite instability and CpG island methylator phenotype in colorectal cancer. Mod Pathol 21, 150.
 Masuda K, Banno K, Yanokura M, Tsuji K, Kobayashi Y, Kisu I, Ueki A, Yamagami W, Nomura H, and Tominaga E, et al (2012). Association of epigenetic inactivation of the WRN gene with anticancer drug sensitivity in cervical cancer cells. Oncol Rep 28, 1146–1152.