br A limitation of the study was the recording of
A limitation of the study was the recording of the discharge date as a single endpoint. We did not record the “medically fit for discharge” date to account for whether discharge was delayed for social reasons. Audits that show stays that are longer than expected for reasons other than surgical per-formance will potentially support the development of better discharge pathways.
This study has shown that it is possible to MDMB-FUBINACA M 1 the assess-ment of a unit’s performance on length of stay because it adjusts for case mix and complexity of operation. The deci-sion tree algorithm accurately predicts for a stay of more than 15 days. The logistic regression algorithm allows for the comparison between units of patients who stay in hospi-tal for less than 15 days. Further work needs to be done before these socioeconomic data can be added to the models. It is conceivable that centres that treat patients with SCC of the head and neck can use such models to show safe standards of care in routine audits of outcome.
D. Tighe et al. / British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery xxx (2019) xxx–xxx 7
Conflict of interest
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. The lead author is employed at Site 6, East Kent University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust.
Ethics statement/confirmation of patients’ permission
This audit was registered at each audit department of the respective hospitals. As the culmination of this study could potentially be generalised, ethics approval was obtained from the EKHUFT, Grey Area Project Group, Research and Inno-vation Department.
We thank the consultants whose patients’ outcomes form the basis of this report.
1. English indices of deprivation 2015. Available from URL: http://imd-by-postcode.opendatacommunities.org (last accessed 14 June 2019).
2. McMahon J, Handley TP, Bobinskas A, et al. Postoperative complications after head and neck operations that require free tissue transfer - prevalent, morbid, and costly. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017;55:809–14. 3. Belderrar A, Hazzab A. Hierarchical genetic algorithm and fuzzy radial basis function networks for factors influencing hospital length of stay outliers. Healthc Inform Res 2017;23:226–32.
4. Freitas A, Silva-Costa T, Lopes F, et al. Factors influencing hospital high length of stay outliers. BMC Health Serv Res 2012;12:265.
5. Tighe DF, Thomas AJ, Sassoon I, et al. Developing a risk stratification tool for audit of outcome after surgery for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck 2017;39:1357–63.
6. Kao SS, Frauenfelder C, Wong D, et al. Validity of the American Col-lege of Surgeons’ National Surgical Quality Improvement Program risk calculator in South Australian glossectomy patients. J Laryngol Otol 2018;132:173–9.
7. Arce K, Moore EJ, Lohse CM, et al. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Surgical Risk Calculator does not accurately predict risk of 30-day complications among patients undergoing microvascular head and neck reconstruction. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2016;74:1850–8.
8. Penel N, Mallet Y, Roussel-Delvallez M, et al. Factors determining length of the postoperative hospital stay after major head and neck cancer surgery. Oral Oncol 2008;44:555–62.
9. BuSaba NY, Schaumberg DA. Predictors of prolonged length of stay after major elective head and neck surgery. Laryngoscope 2007;117:1756–63.
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity xxx (xxxx) xxx–xxx
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ybrbi
Catecholamines contribute to the neovascularization of lung cancer via tumor-associated macrophages
Yun Xiaa,1, Ye Weia,b,c,1, Zhen-Yu Lia, Xian-Yi Caid, Li-Ling Zhanga, Xiao-Rong Donga, Sheng Zhanga, Rui-Guang Zhanga, Rui Menga, Fang Zhua, , Gang Wua,
a Cancer Center, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China
b Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai 200032, China
c Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China
d Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China
Sympathetic nervous system